贝索斯致股东信(2019)

qimoe 发布于 2 个月前

致我们的股东:

我们从此次新冠病毒疫情中学到的一件事是:亚马逊对我们的用户来说变得多么重要。我们希望你们知道,我们认真对待这一责任,我们为我们的团队正在帮助用户度过这段困难时期所做的工作感到自豪。

“亚马逊人”正夜以继日地工作,以便将必要的物资直接送到需要的人的家门口。当前,消费者对必需品的需求一直很高。但与可预见的假日激增不同的是,这种激增几乎没有任何预警,给我们的供应商和送货网络带来了重大挑战。为此,我们迅速把家庭必需品、医疗用品和其他关键产品的储备和交付放在首位。

我们的全食超市(Whole Foods Market)仍然营业,为顾客提供新鲜食品和其他重要商品。我们正在采取措施帮助那些最容易感染病毒的人们,将全食超市每天营业后的第一个小时定为老年人专场。我们暂时关闭了Amazon Books、Amazon 4-Star和Amazon Pop Up商店,因为它们不销售必需品,我们为这些关闭的商店的员工提供了继续在亚马逊其他地区工作的机会。

至关重要的是,在提供这些基本服务的同时,我们还专注于我们世界各地员工和承包商的安全——我们对他们的英勇工作深表感谢,并致力于他们的健康和福祉。我们与医疗专家和卫生当局密切协商,对我们的运营网络和全食超市门店进行了150多项重大流程改革,以帮助团队保持健康,我们还对我们实施的措施进行日常审计。我们已经在世界各地的网点分发了口罩,并实施了体温检测,以帮助保护员工身体健康。我们定期对门把手、楼梯扶手、储物柜、电梯按钮和触摸屏进行消毒,消毒湿巾和洗手液是我们整个网络的标准配置。

我们还引入了广泛的社会距离措施来帮助保护我们的同事。我们取消了轮班时的站立会议,将信息共享转移到公告牌上,错开休息时间,在休息室里分散椅子。虽然培训新员工是具有挑战性的,因为有了新的距离要求,但我们继续确保每位新员工都接受6小时的安全培训。我们已经改变了培训方案,这样我们就不会让员工聚集在一个地方,我们还调整了我们的招聘流程,以考虑到社交距离。

保护我们员工的下一步措施可能是对所有亚马逊人进行定期测试,包括那些没有表现出症状的人。在全球范围内,所有行业进行定期测试,既有助于保障人们的安全,也有助于经济恢复运行。要做到这一点,作为一个社会,我们需要拥有比目前多得多的测试能力。如果每个人都能定期接受检测,我们对抗这种病毒的方式将会有很大的不同。那些检测呈阳性的人们可以被隔离和照顾,每个检测呈阴性的人都可以满怀信心地重新进入经济。

我们已经开始了构建增量测试能力的工作。亚马逊的一个团队——从研究科学家和项目经理到采购专家和软件工程师——从他们平时的日常工作转移到一个专门的团队,致力于这一倡议。我们已经开始组装建造我们的第一个实验室所需的设备,并希望很快开始测试我们的少数一线员工。我们不确定在相关的时间范围内我们会走多远,但我们认为这值得一试,我们随时准备分享我们学到的任何东西。

在我们探索长期解决方案的同时,我们目前也致力于帮助支持员工。截至4月底,我们将美国的最低工资每小时提高了2美元,在加拿大每小时提供了2美元,在英国每小时提高了2英镑,在许多欧洲国家每小时提高了2欧元。我们支付给员工的加班费是正常工资的两倍,每小时最低34美元。仅到4月底,这些加薪将花费超过5亿美元,随着时间的推移可能会更多。虽然我们意识到这是昂贵的,但我们相信,在这种情况下这样做是正确的。我们还设立了亚马逊救济基金——最初提供2500万美元的资金——以支持我们的独立送货服务合作伙伴及其司机、Amazon Flex参与者和陷入财务困境的临时员工。

3月份,我们的履约和交付网络新招10万名员工。本周早些时候,我们又宣布再招聘7.5万名员工,以满足客户需求。这些新员工正在帮助依赖我们满足其关键需求的客户。我们知道,由于失业或被暂时解雇,世界各地的许多人都遭受了经济上的损失。我们很高兴让他们加入我们的团队,直到一切恢复正常,或者他们的前雇主可以把他们重新召回,或者有新的工作机会。我们欢迎乔·达菲(Joe Duffy),他在纽瓦克机场(Newark Airport)失去机械师的工作后加入到我们的行列,他是从一位亚马逊运营分析师的朋友那里得知了这个职位空缺。达拉斯幼儿园教师达比·格里芬(Darby Griffin)在3月9日学校停课后加入亚马逊,现在帮助管理新库存。我们很高兴有达比陪着我们,直到她能回到教室。

亚马逊正在积极采取行动,保护我们的客户免受试图利用这场危机的坏人们的伤害。由于新冠病毒相关的价格欺诈,我们已经从我们的商店中删除了50多万份交易,我们还暂停了全球6000多个违反我们公平定价政策的销售账户。亚马逊向42个州总检察长办公室提供了我们怀疑参与新冠病毒相关产品价格欺诈的卖家信息。为了加快对价格欺诈事件的反应,我们为州总检察长创建了一个特殊的沟通渠道,以便快速、轻松地处理消费者投诉。

Amazon Web Services(AWS)服务在这场危机中也扮演着重要角色。在这种情况下,各种机构能够访问可扩展、可靠且高度安全的计算能力至关重要,无论是用于重要的医疗保健工作、帮助学生继续学习,还是让空前数量的员工在线并保持在家工作效率。各大医院、制药公司和研究实验室正在使用AWS来护理患者、探索治疗方法,并以许多其他方式减轻新冠病毒的影响。世界各地的学术机构正在从“面对面”教室过渡到虚拟教室,并在AWS上运行,以帮助确保学习的连续性。各国政府正在利用AWS作为一个安全的平台,在对抗病毒的过程中建立新的能力。

我们正与世界卫生组织(WHO)合作,提供先进的云技术和技术专长,以跟踪病毒、了解疫情并更好地遏制其传播。世卫组织正在利用我们的云构建大规模数据湖(以原始格式存储数据的存储库或系统),聚合流行病学国家数据,快速将医疗培训视频翻译成不同的语言,并帮助全球医护人员更好地治疗患者。我们正在单独提供一个公开的AWS新冠病毒数据湖,以便专家可以访问和分析抗击该疾病的最新数据。

我们还启动了AWS Diagnostic Development Initiative(AWS诊断开发计划),该计划旨在支持致力于将更准确的新冠病毒诊断解决方案推向市场的客户。更好的诊断有助于加速治疗和遏制病毒流行。我们已承诺投入2000万美元来加速这项工作,并帮助我们的客户利用云来应对这一挑战。虽然该计划是为应对新冠病毒疫情而建立的,但我们也在展望未来,我们将资助有可能遏制未来传染病爆发的诊断性研究项目。

世界各地的客户已经利用云来扩展服务并响应新冠病毒疫情。我们加入了纽约市新冠病毒疫情快速反应联盟,开发了一种对话代理,使处于危险中的纽约人和年长的纽约人能够收到关于医疗和其他重要需求的准确、及时的信息。为了响应洛杉矶联合学区提出的将70万名学生过渡到远程学习的请求,AWS帮助建立了一个呼叫中心来回答IT问题、提供远程支持,并使员工能够接听电话。

我们正在向疾控中心提供云服务,帮助数千名公共卫生从业者和临床医生收集与新冠病毒疫情相关的数据,报告响应措施。在英国,AWS为一个项目提供云计算基础设施,该项目分析医院入住率、急诊室容量和患者等待时间,以帮助英国国家医疗服务体系(National Health Service)决定在哪里最好地分配资源。在加拿大,OTN——世界上最大的虚拟医疗网络之一——正在扩展其由AWS支持的视频服务,以适应疫情所导致的使用需求激增4000%。在巴西,AWS将为圣保罗州政府提供云计算基础设施,以保证该州公立学校的100万名学生参加在线课程。

在美国疾控中心(CDC)的指导下,我们的Alexa医疗团队建立了一种体验,让美国客户可以在家里检查他们的新冠病毒风险水平。客户可以问,“Alexa,如果我认为我感染新冠病毒,我该怎么办?”然后,Alexa问了一系列关于这个人的症状和可能接触到的问题。根据这些回应,Alexa随后提供了CDC来源的指导。我们还在日本创建了类似的服务,基于日本厚生劳动省的指导。

我们正在方便客户使用http://Amazon.com 或Alexa直接向处于新冠病毒疫情第一线的慈善机构捐款,包括Feeding America、美国红十字会和拯救儿童组织(Save the Children)。Echo用户可以选择说,“Alexa,捐钱给Feed America新冠病毒疫情响应基金。”在西雅图,我们与一家餐饮企业合作,在疫情爆发期间向西雅图和King County县的2700名老年人和多病居民分发了7.3万份饭菜,我们捐赠了8200台笔记本电脑,供西雅图公立学校的学生们在上课期间使用。

疫情之外

虽然当前是极其艰难的一段时期,但这也是一个重要的提醒,我们作为一家公司,所做的事情可以极大地改变人们的生活。客户依赖我们,我们很幸运能够提供帮助。凭借我们的规模和快速创新的能力,亚马逊可以产生积极的影响,成为推动进步的组织力量。

去年,我们与联合国前气候变化负责人、Global Optimism创始人克里斯蒂娜·菲格雷斯(Christian Figueres)共同发起《气候宣言》(The Climate Pledge),并成为该承诺的第一个签字人。根据这一承诺,亚马逊将提前10年实现《巴黎协定》的目标,到2040年实现净零碳排放。亚马逊在实现这一目标方面面临重大挑战,因为我们不仅仅是传递信息——我们拥有广泛的物理基础设施,每年在全球交付超过100亿件商品。我们相信,如果亚马逊能够提前十年实现净零碳,任何公司都可以——我们希望与所有公司合作,使其成为现实。

为此,我们正在招募其他公司签署《气候宣言》。签署方同意定期测量和报告温室气体排放,实施符合《巴黎协定》的脱碳战略,到2040年实现年度碳排放净零。(我们很快就会宣布新的签字方。)

为兑现承诺,我们将从Rivian(总部位于密歇根州的电动汽车生产商)购买10万辆电动送货面包车。亚马逊的目标是最早在2022年让1万辆Rivian的新型电动面包车上路,到2030年让所有10万辆车上路。这对环境大有裨益,但前景更可期。这类投资会向市场发出一个开始发明和开发新技术的信号,而大型的全球性公司需要这些技术来过渡到低碳经济。

我们还承诺,到2024年达到80%的可再生能源使用率,到2030年达到100%。(事实上,我们的团队正在推动到2025年达到100%,并有一个具有挑战性但可信的计划来实现这一目标)。在全球范围内,亚马逊拥有86个太阳能和风能项目,这些项目的发电能力超过2300兆瓦,每年提供超过630万兆瓦时的能源——足以为58万多个美国家庭供电。

我们在减少包装垃圾方面也取得了巨大进步。十多年前,我们推出了“无障碍包装计划”(Frustration-Free Packaging),以鼓励制造商将其产品装在易于打开、100%可回收的包装中,无需额外的装运箱即可运往客户手中。自2008年以来,该计划已节省包装材料81万多吨,消除了14亿个托运箱的使用。

我们正在进行这些重大投资,以将我们的碳足迹降至零,尽管事实是,网上购物在本质上已经比去实体商店购物更具碳效率。亚马逊的可持续发展科学家花了三年多的时间开发模型、工具和指标来衡量我们的碳足迹。他们的详细分析发现,网上购物始终比开车去商店产生的碳更少,因为一次面包车送货平均可以免去大约100次汽车往返。我们的科学家开发了一个模型,来比较在线订购全食超市杂货,和开车去离您最近的全是超市商店的碳排放强度。研究发现,与在商店购物相比,在线食品杂货送货产生的每件商品的碳排放量平均降低了43%。

AWS本身也比传统的内部数据中心效率更高。这主要因为两点原因——更高的利用率,以及我们的服务器和设施比大多数公司运营自己的数据中心更高效。典型的单一公司数据中心的服务器利用率约为18%。他们需要过剩的容量来处理使用量高峰。而AWS受益于多租户使用模式,并以高得多的服务器利用率运行。此外,AWS还成功地提高了其设施和设备的能效,例如在某些数据中心,使用更高效的蒸发冷却,而不是传统的空调。

451 Research的一项研究发现,AWS的基础设施的能效是接受调查的美国企业数据中心中值的3.6倍。随着我们对可再生能源的使用,这些因素使AWS能以更低的碳足迹(低88%),完成与传统数据中心相同的任务。不要认为我们不会在意剩余的12%–我们会通过对可再生能源项目的更多投资,让AWS 100%实现无碳。

利用规模谋福利

在过去的十年里,没有一家公司创造了比亚马逊更多的就业机会。亚马逊在全球直接雇佣了840,000名员工,其中590,000人在美国,115,000人在欧洲,95,000人在亚洲人。总体而言,亚马逊直接和间接支持了美国200万个就业岗位,其中包括亚马逊在建筑、物流和专业服务等领域的投资创造的68万多个就业岗位,以及在亚马逊上销售的中小企业创造的83万个就业岗位。在全球范围内,我们支持近400万个工作岗位。我们特别自豪的是,这些工作中有许多是入门级工作,给了人们第一次进入劳动力市场的机会。

亚马逊的工作岗位拥有业界领先的每小时15美元最低工资和综合福利。超过4000万美国人——其中许多人的联邦最低工资为每小时7.25美元——的收入低于薪酬最低的亚马逊员工。2018年,当我们将最低工资提高到每小时15美元时,对我们履约中心工作的数十万人产生了立竿见影的有意义的影响。我们希望其他大雇主也加入到我们的行列,提高他们自己的最低工资,我们还在继续为15美元的联邦最低工资进行游说。

除了工资之外,我们还想改善工人的生活。亚马逊为每位全职员工提供医疗保险、401(K)计划、20周带薪产假和其他福利。这些都是与亚马逊最高级管理人员获得的相同福利。随着我们的经济瞬息万变,我们比以往任何时候都更清楚地看到,工人们需要不断发展他们的技能,以跟上技术的发展。这就是为什么我们将花费7亿美元,为10万多名亚马逊人提供培训计划的原因,这些培训项目涉及医疗保健、云计算和机器学习等高需求领域。

自2012年以来,我们提供了Career Choice,这是一个为希望进入高需求职业的履约中心员工提供的预付费教学计划。亚马逊为特定学习领域的证书或文凭支付高达95%的学杂费,从而提高了高需求工作的就业机会。自推出以来,已有超过25000名亚马逊人接受了需求职业培训。

为了确保下一代拥有在科技驱动的经济中茁壮成长所需的技能,我们去年启动了一个名为“亚马逊未来工程师”(Amazon Future Engineer)的项目,该项目旨在教育和培训低收入和弱势群体的年轻人,让他们追求计算机科学的职业生涯。我们有一个雄心勃勃的目标:每年帮助数十万学生学习计算机科学和编程。

“亚马逊未来工程师”目前为全国服务不足社区的2000多所学校资助计算机科学入门和AP计算机科学课程。每年,“亚马逊未来工程师”还会向来自低收入背景的计算机科学专业的学生提供100个为期四年、价值4万美元的大学奖学金名额。这些奖学金获得者在大学第一年后还会在亚马逊获得有保障的带薪实习机会。我们在英国的项目为120个工程学徒提供资金,并帮助来自弱势背景的学生从事技术职业。

目前,我自己的时间和想法继续集中在新冠病毒疫情上,以及亚马逊如何在“正在提供帮助的情况下”继续提供更多帮助。我非常感谢我的亚马逊同事们,感谢他们在我们所经历的这一切中所表现出的所有勇气和聪明才智。可以相信,我们所有人都会超越眼前的危机,洞悉未来、总结教训,以及如何将其应用于未来。

西奥多·苏斯·盖泽尔(Theodor Seuss Geisel,美国作家)对此的反思:“当不好的事情发生时,你有三个选择。你可以让它定义你,让它摧毁你,也可以让它加强你。”对于人们会选择哪一种,我非常乐观。

即使在当前这种情况下,还是让我们保持第一天的心态(it remains Day 1,贝索斯多年来一直主张的工作心态,希望员工要保持新人时候的心态,亚马逊则要保持初创公司的心态,努力向前。)。一如既往,我附上一份我们1997年的股东信的复印件。

Jeffrey P. Bezos


英文原文

To our shareowners:

One thing we’ve learned from the COVID-19 crisis is how important Amazon has become to our customers. We want you to know we take this responsibility seriously, and we’re proud of the work our teams are doing to help customers through this difficult time.

Amazonians are working around the clock to get necessary supplies delivered directly to the doorsteps of people who need them. The demand we are seeing for essential products has been and remains high. But unlike a predictable holiday surge, this spike occurred with little warning, creating major challenges for our suppliers and delivery network. We quickly prioritized the stocking and delivery of essential household staples, medical supplies, and other critical products.

Our Whole Foods Market stores have remained open, providing fresh food and other vital goods for customers. We are taking steps to help those most vulnerable to the virus, setting aside the first hour of shopping at Whole Foods each day for seniors. We have temporarily closed Amazon Books, Amazon 4-star, and Amazon Pop Up stores because they don’t sell essential products, and we offered associates from those closed stores the opportunity to continue working in other parts of Amazon.

Crucially, while providing these essential services, we are focused on the safety of our employees and contractors around the world—we are deeply grateful for their heroic work and are committed to their health and well-being. Consulting closely with medical experts and health authorities, we’ve made over 150 significant process changes in our operations network and Whole Foods Market stores to help teams stay healthy, and we conduct daily audits of the measures we’ve put into place. We’ve distributed face masks and implemented temperature checks at sites around the world to help protect employees and support staff. We regularly sanitize door handles, stairway handrails, lockers, elevator buttons, and touch screens, and disinfectant wipes and hand sanitizer are standard across our network.

We’ve also introduced extensive social distancing measures to help protect our associates. We have eliminated stand-up meetings during shifts, moved information sharing to bulletin boards, staggered break times, and spread out chairs in breakrooms. While training new hires is challenging with new distancing requirements, we continue to ensure that every new employee gets six hours of safety training. We’ve shifted training protocols so we don’t have employees gathering in one spot, and we’ve adjusted our hiring processes to allow for social distancing.

A next step in protecting our employees might be regular testing of all Amazonians, including those showing no symptoms. Regular testing on a global scale, across all industries, would both help keep people safe and help get the economy back up and running. For this to work, we as a society would need vastly more testing capacity than is currently available. If every person could be tested regularly, it would make a huge difference in how we fight this virus. Those who test positive could be quarantined and cared for, and everyone who tests negative could re-enter the economy with confidence.

We’ve begun the work of building incremental testing capacity. A team of Amazonians—from research scientists and program managers to procurement specialists and software engineers—moved from their normal day jobs onto a dedicated team to work on this initiative. We have begun assembling the equipment we need to build our first lab and hope to start testing small numbers of our frontline employees soon. We are not sure how far we will get in the relevant timeframe, but we think it’s worth trying, and we stand ready to share anything we learn.

While we explore longer-term solutions, we are also committed to helping support employees now. We increased our minimum wage through the end of April by $2 per hour in the U.S., $2 per hour in Canada, £2 per hour in the UK, and €2 per hour in many European countries. And we are paying associates double our regular rate for any overtime worked—a minimum of $34 an hour—an increase from time and a half. These wage increases will cost more than $500 million, just through the end of April, and likely more than that over time. While we recognize this is expensive, we believe it’s the right thing to do under the circumstances. We also established the Amazon Relief Fund—with an initial $25 million in funding—to support our independent delivery service partners and their drivers, Amazon Flex participants, and temporary employees under financial distress.

In March, we opened 100,000 new positions across our fulfillment and delivery network. Earlier this week, after successfully filling those roles, we announced we were creating another 75,000 jobs to respond to customer demand. These new hires are helping customers who depend on us to meet their critical needs. We know that many people around the world have suffered financially as jobs are lost or furloughed. We are happy to have them on our teams until things return to normal and either their former employer can bring them back or new jobs become available. We’ve welcomed Joe Duffy, who joined after losing his job as a mechanic at Newark airport and learned about an opening from a friend who is an Amazon operations analyst. Dallas preschool teacher Darby Griffin joined after her school closed on March 9th and now helps manage new inventory. We’re happy to have Darby with us until she can return to the classroom.

Amazon is acting aggressively to protect our customers from bad actors looking to exploit the crisis. We’ve removed over half a million offers from our stores due to COVID-based price gouging, and we’ve suspended more than 6,000 selling accounts globally for violating our fair-pricing policies. Amazon turned over information about sellers we suspect engaged in price gouging of products related to COVID-19 to 42 state attorneys general offices. To accelerate our response to price-gouging incidents, we created a special communication channel for state attorneys general to quickly and easily escalate consumer complaints to us.

Amazon Web Services is also playing an important role in this crisis. The ability for organizations to access scalable, dependable, and highly secure computing power—whether for vital healthcare work, to help students continue learning, or to keep unprecedented numbers of employees online and productive from home—is critical in this situation. Hospital networks, pharmaceutical companies, and research labs are using AWS to care for patients, explore treatments, and mitigate the impacts of COVID-19 in many other ways. Academic institutions around the world are transitioning from in-person to virtual classrooms and are running on AWS to help ensure continuity of learning. And governments are leveraging AWS as a secure platform to build out new capabilities in their efforts to end this pandemic.

We are collaborating with the World Health Organization, supplying advanced cloud technologies and technical expertise to track the virus, understand the outbreak, and better contain its spread. WHO is leveraging our cloud to build large-scale data lakes, aggregate epidemiological country data, rapidly translate medical training videos into different languages, and help global healthcare workers better treat patients. We are separately making a public AWS COVID-19 data lake available as a centralized repository for up-to-date and curated information related to the spread and characteristics of the virus and its associated illness so experts can access and analyze the latest data in their battle against the disease.

We also launched the AWS Diagnostic Development Initiative, a program to support customers working to bring more accurate diagnostic solutions to market for COVID-19. Better diagnostics help accelerate treatment and containment of this pandemic. We committed $20 million to accelerate this work and help our customers harness the cloud to tackle this challenge. While the program was established in response to COVID-19, we also are looking toward the future, and we will fund diagnostic research projects that have the potential to blunt future infectious disease outbreaks.

Customers around the world have leveraged the cloud to scale up services and stand up responses to COVID-19. We joined the New York City COVID-19 Rapid Response Coalition to develop a conversational agent to enable at-risk and elderly New Yorkers to receive accurate, timely information about medical and other important needs. In response to a request from the Los Angeles Unified School District to transition 700,000 students to remote learning, AWS helped establish a call center to field IT questions, provide remote support, and enable staff to answer calls. We are providing cloud services to the CDC to help thousands of public health practitioners and clinicians gather data related to COVID-19 and inform response efforts. In the UK, AWS provides the cloud computing infrastructure for a project that analyzes hospital occupancy levels, emergency room capacity, and patient wait times to help the country’s National Health Service decide where best to allocate resources. In Canada, OTN—one of the world’s largest virtual care networks—is scaling its AWS-powered video service to accommodate a 4,000% spike in demand to support citizens as the pandemic continues. In Brazil, AWS will provide the São Paulo State Government with cloud computing infrastructure to guarantee online classes to 1 million students in public schools across the state.

Following CDC guidance, our Alexa health team built an experience that lets U.S. customers check their risk level for COVID-19 at home. Customers can ask, "Alexa, what do I do if I think I have COVID-19?" or "Alexa, what do I do if I think I have coronavirus?" Alexa then asks a series of questions about the person’s symptoms and possible exposure. Based on those responses, Alexa then provides CDC-sourced guidance. We created a similar service in Japan, based on guidance from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare.

We’re making it easy for customers to use Amazon.com or Alexa to donate directly to charities on the front lines of the COVID-19 crisis, including Feeding America, the American Red Cross, and Save the Children. Echo users have the option to say, "Alexa, make a donation to Feeding America COVID-19 Response Fund." In Seattle, we’ve partnered with a catering business to distribute 73,000 meals to 2,700 elderly and medically vulnerable residents in Seattle and King County during the outbreak, and we donated 8,200 laptops to help Seattle Public Schools students gain access to a device while classes are conducted virtually.

Beyond COVID

Although these are incredibly difficult times, they are an important reminder that what we do as a company can make a big difference in people’s lives. Customers count on us to be there, and we are fortunate to be able to help. With our scale and ability to innovate quickly, Amazon can make a positive impact and be an organizing force for progress.

Last year, we co-founded The Climate Pledge with Christiana Figueres, the UN’s former climate change chief and founder of Global Optimism, and became the first signatory to the pledge. The pledge commits Amazon to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement 10 years early—and be net zero carbon by 2040. Amazon faces significant challenges in achieving this goal because we don’t just move information around—we have extensive physical infrastructure and deliver more than 10 billion items worldwide a year. And we believe if Amazon can get to net zero carbon ten years early, any company can—and we want to work together with all companies to make it a reality.

To that end, we are recruiting other companies to sign The Climate Pledge. Signatories agree to measure and report greenhouse gas emissions regularly, implement decarbonization strategies in line with the Paris Agreement, and achieve net zero annual carbon emissions by 2040. (We'll be announcing new signatories soon.)

We plan to meet the pledge, in part, by purchasing 100,000 electric delivery vans from Rivian—a Michigan-based producer of electric vehicles. Amazon aims to have 10,000 of Rivian’s new electric vans on the road as early as 2022, and all 100,000 vehicles on the road by 2030. That’s good for the environment, but the promise is even greater. This type of investment sends a signal to the marketplace to start inventing and developing new technologies that large, global companies need to transition to a low-carbon economy.

We've also committed to reaching 80% renewable energy by 2024 and 100% renewable energy by 2030. (The team is actually pushing to get to 100% by 2025 and has a challenging but credible plan to pull that off.) Globally, Amazon has 86 solar and wind projects that have the capacity to generate over 2,300 MW and deliver more than 6.3 million MWh of energy annually—enough to power more than 580,000 U.S. homes.

We've made tremendous progress cutting packaging waste. More than a decade ago, we created the Frustration-Free Packaging program to encourage manufacturers to package their products in easy-to-open, 100% recyclable packaging that is ready to ship to customers without the need for an additional shipping box. Since 2008, this program has saved more than 810,000 tons of packaging material and eliminated the use of 1.4 billion shipping boxes.

We are making these significant investments to drive our carbon footprint to zero despite the fact that shopping online is already inherently more carbon efficient than going to the store. Amazon’s sustainability scientists have spent more than three years developing the models, tools, and metrics to measure our carbon footprint. Their detailed analysis has found that shopping online consistently generates less carbon than driving to a store, since a single delivery van trip can take approximately 100 roundtrip car journeys off the road on average. Our scientists developed a model to compare the carbon intensity of ordering Whole Foods Market groceries online versus driving to your nearest Whole Foods Market store. The study found that, averaged across all basket sizes, online grocery deliveries generate 43% lower carbon emissions per item compared to shopping in stores. Smaller basket sizes generate even greater carbon savings.

AWS is also inherently more efficient than the traditional in-house data center. That’s primarily due to two things—higher utilization, and the fact that our servers and facilities are more efficient than what most companies can achieve running their own data centers. Typical single-company data centers operate at roughly 18% server utilization. They need that excess capacity to handle large usage spikes. AWS benefits from multi-tenant usage patterns and operates at far higher server utilization rates. In addition, AWS has been successful in increasing the energy efficiency of its facilities and equipment, for instance by using more efficient evaporative cooling in certain data centers instead of traditional air conditioning. A study by 451 Research found that AWS’s infrastructure is 3.6 times more energy efficient than the median U.S. enterprise data center surveyed. Along with our use of renewable energy, these factors enable AWS to do the same tasks as traditional data centers with an 88% lower carbon footprint. And don’t think we’re not going to get those last 12 points—we’ll make AWS 100% carbon free through more investments in renewable energy projects.

Leveraging scale for good

Over the last decade, no company has created more jobs than Amazon. Amazon directly employs 840,000 workers worldwide, including over 590,000 in the U.S., 115,000 in Europe, and 95,000 in Asia. In total, Amazon directly and indirectly supports 2 million jobs in the U.S., including 680,000-plus jobs created by Amazon’s investments in areas like construction, logistics, and professional services, plus another 830,000 jobs created by small and medium-sized businesses selling on Amazon. Globally, we support nearly 4 million jobs. We are especially proud of the fact that many of these are entry-level jobs that give people their first opportunity to participate in the workforce.

And Amazon’s jobs come with an industry-leading $15 minimum wage and comprehensive benefits. More than 40 million Americans—many making the federal minimum wage of $7.25 an hour—earn less than the lowest-paid Amazon associate. When we raised our starting minimum wage to $15 an hour in 2018, it had an immediate and meaningful impact on the hundreds of thousands of people working in our fulfillment centers. We want other big employers to join us by raising their own minimum pay rates, and we continue to lobby for a $15 federal minimum wage.

We want to improve workers' lives beyond pay. Amazon provides every full-time employee with health insurance, a 401(k) plan, 20 weeks paid maternity leave, and other benefits. These are the same benefits that Amazon's most senior executives receive. And with our rapidly changing economy, we see more clearly than ever the need for workers to evolve their skills continually to keep up with technology. That's why we’re spending $700 million to provide more than 100,000 Amazonians access to training programs, at their places of work, in high-demand fields such as healthcare, cloud computing, and machine learning. Since 2012, we have offered Career Choice, a pre-paid tuition program for fulfillment center associates looking to move into high- demand occupations. Amazon pays up to 95% of tuition and fees toward a certificate or diploma in qualified fields of study, leading to enhanced employment opportunities in high-demand jobs. Since its launch, more than 25,000 Amazonians have received training for in-demand occupations.

To ensure that future generations have the skills they need to thrive in a technology-driven economy, we started a program last year called Amazon Future Engineer, which is designed to educate and train low-income and disadvantaged young people to pursue careers in computer science. We have an ambitious goal: to help hundreds of thousands of students each year learn computer science and coding. Amazon Future Engineer currently funds Introduction to Computer Science and AP Computer Science classes for more than 2,000 schools in underserved communities across the country. Each year, Amazon Future Engineer also gives 100 four-year, $40,000 college scholarships to computer science students from low-income backgrounds. Those scholarship recipients also receive guaranteed, paid internships at Amazon after their first year of college. Our program in the UK funds 120 engineering apprenticeships and helps students from disadvantaged backgrounds pursue technology careers.

For now, my own time and thinking continues to be focused on COVID-19 and how Amazon can help while we’re in the middle of it. I am extremely grateful to my fellow Amazonians for all the grit and ingenuity they are showing as we move through this. You can count on all of us to look beyond the immediate crisis for insights and lessons and how to apply them going forward.

Reflect on this from Theodor Seuss Geisel:

"When something bad happens you have three choices. You can either let it define you, let it destroy you, or you can let it strengthen you."

I am very optimistic about which of these civilization is going to choose.

Even in these circumstances, it remains Day 1. As always, I attach a copy of our original 1997 letter.

Sincerely,

Jeffrey P. Bezos

Founder and Chief Executive Officer

Amazon.com, Inc.