贝索斯致股东信(2012)

qimoe 发布于 2 个月前

致我们的股东:

常读我们的致股东信的读者应该知道,Amazon的动力来自于不断的取悦客户而不是打败对手。我们也不去比较这两种手段哪个能最大化商业成功。各有利弊吧,也有非常公司的企业精于不断打趴对手。我们确实关注我们的竞争对手,但更多的是从他们身上收获灵感,对我们来说以用户为中心已经深深嵌入我们的文化了。

用户驱动有一个很细微的好处,就是为我们提供主动性。在我们做的最好的领域,我们不需要任何外部的压力。我们打心眼里想要提升我们的服务,增加更多的好功能;我们一直在降价并提升给用户创造的价值;我们不断创新——而不是在不得不这么做的时候才去做。我们的投入是受用户驱动而不是竞争对手驱动。我们认为这个方式更能赢得用户的信任也更能刺激我们在用户体验上的提升,最重要的是,让我们在我们做的最好的领域也不放松。

“谢谢你们,每次我打开Amazon的首页弹出一个白皮书,我就知道你们又给Prime会员加菜了。我本来只是想免运费的,结果现在我还有了电影、电视剧和书可以看……你们加量不加价,真是好样的!”我们现在有超过1500万商品支持Prime服务,是我们2005年推出服务时的15倍。Prime即时视频(Prime Instant Video)在一年间内容数量翻了两番,目前我们有38000多集电影和电视剧。Kindle Owners‘ Landing Library现在有超过30万本书,包括我们花了几百万把整个哈利波特全集纳入。我们没有“必要”为Prime做这样的改进服务,我们是主动选择这样做的。还有一件相关的长期投入就是Fulfillment by Amazon(FBA),这个服务让第三方卖家可以享受Amazon的仓储物流网络,并且既而可以参与Prime项目。这两个项目相互促进,一方面卖家销量提升,另一方面Prime用户又有了更多选择。

我们创建了一个自动化系统来检测用户的使用体验是否达到了我们预期想要提供的标准,如果没有,我们的系统会自动给用户返现补偿。有一个产业观察家最近在Amazon上看电影的时候收到了一封我们的自动邮件:“我们发现您在观看电影《卡萨布兰卡》的时候不够清晰流畅,我们感到非常抱歉并决定补偿您2.99美元。我们希望再次看到您使用我们的服务。”他对我们的自动邮件感到惊讶,并且写了篇文章描述这次体验。

当你在Amazon 下单预售商品的时候,我们保证这是直到发售当天的最低价。“我刚收到了5美元返现因为预售价格保护机制……这生意做的真好,谢谢你们的诚实!”没错,很多用户没时间盯着价格的走势,所以我们替他们把这件事干了,如果有更便宜的价格,我们就自动返现。主动做事对我们来说成本更高,但是这更能让用户感到惊喜、欢乐和信任。

我们的作者也是用户。Amazon出版已经宣布以后每个月支付版税,这在业内一般是一年两次,而长久以来就是这样。可是当我们采访作者的时候我们发现,分很少几次付钱是让人很不爽的事情。想象一下你会不会喜欢一年只拿两次工资。没有任何外界压力强迫我们以高于一年两次的频率支付,我们是主动这样做的。顺便说一句,虽然这次“调查”很艰难,但我很高兴告诉各位我最近在Florida的海滩上看到了很多人在用Kindle哈哈现在已经有五代Kindle了,除了一代我基本都看到了。我们的宗旨是用骨折的价格卖高质量的硬件产品。我们希望用户在使用我们产品的时候付费而不是购买的时候付费。我们认为这更好的符合我们用户至上的原则。我们不需要用户追着我们的新产品,他们用着四年前的Kindle我们依然很高兴。

我还能继续说下去,Kindle Fire’s Freetime, 我们客户服务Andon Cord, Amazon MP3’s AutoRip等等,但是我们最后不得不说说的一个靠内驱力完成的项目就是Amazon Web Services(AWS)。在2012年,AWS宣布了159个新功能和服务。我们相比于7年前刚刚推出服务把AWS价格降低了27倍,还增加了企业服务增强支持,以及新的提升用户销量的工具。AWS Trusted Advisor监控着用户的配置,将他们的配置和最优的胚珠相比较,然后通知用户在哪里可以改进性能、提升安全性以及如何省钱。是的,我们主动告诉用户他们多付钱了。在过去的90天内,用户们通过Trusted Advisor这项服务节省了几百万美金,而这项服务刚刚上线。全部这些都是在AWS已经完全领先市场的时候做出来的,你可能会觉得我们这时已经没有任何外部压力了,但是我们的内部的动力促使我们做出这些能让用户尖叫的功能,也是这股内驱力驱动我们创新的步伐。

我们在Prime、AWS、Kindle、数字媒体和用户体验上的投入让人觉得我们过于慷慨,对投资人不够好,甚至觉得我们是不以盈利为目的的公司。“在我看来,亚马逊是一家由各种商业公司元素组成的,一切为了用户的慈善组织”,一位观察家如是说。我不以为然,如果试图在特定时机“及时”的甩出一些改进措施,这是在耍小聪明,在这个日新月异的时代这样做风险太高。更根本的说,我认为长线思维形成了闭环:主动取悦用户赢得信任,信任带来更多重复博弈,还能引来新的客户,甚至在全新的领域。长远来看,股东的利益和用户的利益是一致的。

在我写下这封信的时候,我们的股价表现还可以,但是我们一直告诉我们自己——正如我经常在开会的时候饮用的Benjamin Graham的那句话——“短期来看,市场是个投票机;长期来看,市场却是个称重器。”我们不会因为10%股价的提升而弹冠相庆,10%的涨幅不让我们变得更聪明,10%的跌幅也不会让我们变傻。我们想上称!我们一直致力于把自己喂成一个大胖子公司!

尽管我对我们的创新感到自豪,我知道我们还是会不断犯错,有的会让我们受伤,有的会被我们厉害又努力的团队弥补。我们向前冲的念头会让我们一直敢于挑战小路,虽然可能走过去发现是死胡同,但是如果运气好,说不定就把我们引上了康庄大道。

(译者注:最后一段就不逐字翻译了,从第一篇追到这的肯定都知道要说什么了)

自豪,感谢,附了信,不忘初心,Day 1.

Jeffrey P. Bezos

(Vinchent翻译)


英文原文

To our shareowners:

As regular readers of this letter will know, our energy at Amazon comes from the desire to impress customers rather than the zeal to best competitors. We don’t take a view on which of these approaches is more likely to maximize business success. There are pros and cons to both and many examples of highly successful competitor-focused companies. We do work to pay attention to competitors and be inspired by them, but it is a fact that the customer-centric way is at this point a defining element of our culture.

One advantage – perhaps a somewhat subtle one – of a customer-driven focus is that it aids a certain type of proactivity. When we’re at our best, we don’t wait for external pressures. We are internally driven to improve our services, adding benefits and features, before we have to. We lower prices and increase value for customers before we have to. We invent before we have to. These investments are motivated by customer focus rather than by reaction to competition. We think this approach earns more trust with customers and drives rapid improvements in customer experience – importantly – even in those areas where we are already the leader.

“Thank you. Every time I see that white paper on the front page of Amazon, I know that I’m about to get more for my money than I thought I would. I signed up for Prime for the shipping, yet now I get movies, and TV and books. You keep adding more, but not charging more. So thanks again for the additions.” We now have more than 15 million items in Prime, up 15x since we launched in 2005. Prime Instant Video selection tripled in just over a year to more than 38,000 movies and TV episodes. The Kindle Owners’ Lending Library has also more than tripled to over 300,000 books, including an investment of millions of dollars to make the entire Harry Potter series available as part of that selection. We didn’t “have to” make these improvements in Prime. We did so proactively. A related investment – a major, multi-year one – is Fulfillment by Amazon. FBA gives third-party sellers the option of warehousing their inventory alongside ours in our fulfillment center network. It has been a game changer for our seller customers because their items become eligible for Prime benefits, which drives their sales, while at the same time benefitting consumers with additional Prime selection.

We build automated systems that look for occasions when we’ve provided a customer experience that isn’t up to our standards, and those systems then proactively refund customers. One industry observer recently received an automated email from us that said, “We noticed that you experienced poor video playback while watching the following rental on Amazon Video On Demand: Casablanca. We’re sorry for the inconvenience and have issued you a refund for the following amount: $2.99. We hope to see you again soon.” Surprised by the proactive refund, he ended up writing about the experience: “Amazon ‘noticed that I experienced poor video playback…’ And they decided to give me a refund because of that? Wow…Talk about putting customers first.”

When you pre-order something from Amazon, we guarantee you the lowest price offered by us between your order time and the end of the day of the release date. “I just received notice of a $5 refund to my credit card for pre-order price protection. . . What a great way to do business! Thank you very much for your fair and honest dealings.” Most customers are too busy themselves to monitor the price of an item after they pre-order it, and our

policy could be to require the customer to contact us and ask for the refund. Doing it proactively is more expensive for us, but it also surprises, delights, and earns trust.

We also have authors as customers. Amazon Publishing has just announced it will start paying authors their royalties monthly, sixty days in arrears. The industry standard is twice a year, and that has been the standard for a long time. Yet when we interview authors as customers, infrequent payment is a major dissatisfier. Imagine how you’d like it if you were paid twice a year. There isn’t competitive pressure to pay authors more than once every six months, but we’re proactively doing so. By the way – though the research was taxing, I struggled through and am happy to report that I recently saw many Kindles in use at a Florida beach. There are five generations of Kindle, and I believe I saw every generation in use except for the first. Our business approach is to sell premium

hardware at roughly breakeven prices. We want to make money when people use our devices – not when people buy our devices. We think this aligns us better with customers. For example, we don’t need our customers to be on the upgrade treadmill. We can be very happy to see people still using four-year-old Kindles!

I can keep going – Kindle Fire’s FreeTime, our customer service Andon Cord, Amazon MP3’s AutoRip – but will finish up with a very clear example of internally driven motivation: Amazon Web Services. In 2012, AWS announced 159 new features and services. We’ve reduced AWS prices 27 times since launching 7 years ago, added enterprise service support enhancements, and created innovative tools to help customers be more efficient. AWS Trusted Advisor monitors customer configurations, compares them to known best practices, and then notifies customers where opportunities exist to improve performance, enhance security, or save money. Yes, we are actively telling customers they’re paying us more than they need to. In the last 90 days, customers have saved millions of dollars through Trusted Advisor, and the service is only getting started. All of this progress comes in the context of AWS being the widely recognized leader in its area – a situation where you might worry that external motivation could fail. On the other hand, internal motivation – the drive to get the customer to say “Wow” – keeps the pace of innovation fast.

Our heavy investments in Prime, AWS, Kindle, digital media, and customer experience in general strike some as too generous, shareholder indifferent, or even at odds with being a for-profit company. “Amazon, as far as I can tell, is a charitable organization being run by elements of the investment community for the benefit of consumers,” writes one outside observer. But I don’t think so. To me, trying to dole out improvements in a just in-time fashion would be too clever by half. It would be risky in a world as fast-moving as the one we all live in. More fundamentally, I think long-term thinking squares the circle. Proactively delighting customers earns trust, which earns more business from those customers, even in new business arenas. Take a long-term view, and the interests of customers and shareholders align.

As I write this, our recent stock performance has been positive, but we constantly remind ourselves of an important point – as I frequently quote famed investor Benjamin Graham in our employee all-hands meetings – “In the short run, the market is a voting machine but in the long run, it is a weighing machine.” We don’t celebrate a 10% increase in the stock price like we celebrate excellent customer experience. We aren’t 10% smarter when that happens and conversely aren’t 10% dumber when the stock goes the other way. We want to be weighed, and we’re always working to build a heavier company.

As proud as I am of our progress and our inventions, I know that we will make mistakes along the way – some will be self-inflicted, some will be served up by smart and hard-working competitors. Our passion for pioneering will drive us to explore narrow passages, and, unavoidably, many will turn out to be blind alleys. But – with a bit of good fortune – there will also be a few that open up into broad avenues.

I am incredibly lucky to be a part of this large team of outstanding missionaries who value our customers as much as I do and who demonstrate that every day with their hard work. As always, I attach a copy of our original 1997 letter. Our approach remains the same, and it’s still Day 1.

Jeffrey P. Bezos

Founder and Chief Executive Officer

Amazon.com, Inc.

April 2013